Can Everton Jones find out how his father stole Emperor Bokassa’s diamonds and, more importantly, where he hid them; before the world and his brother get there first?
Click on the picture link in the sidebar to read an extract of my first novel, which was published by Paradise Press in August 2012.

Thursday, 11 September 2014

How to use the tools in MS Word to create an index

You might want an index in your print book. My previous post on How to Index an e-book provides an overview of the principles of indexing. It is a very large and complex task, but if you do want an index, then the most obvious way to do it would be to use the tools built in to MS Word.

[added: 10 November 2014: I have MS Word 2007, which may be a bit out of date by now. The way it does indexes neither follows Oxford nor Chicago style to the letter, although it leans heavily towards Chicago. Should Microsoft have elected to provide an ‘Oxford-’ or ‘Chicago-style’ option in the ‘Insert Index’ dialog in future releases of MS Word, then that would be a huge improvement! This post is written in the context of Word 2007.]

The indexing tools can be found in the ‘Index’ group of the ‘References’ tab in the ribbon:

Marking index entries:

Using the tools is beguilingly simple. Just select the term you want to index in the text and click ‘Mark Entry’. A dialog loads:

The text you selected in the document is pre-loaded as the text for the index entry. You can, however, type anything you want instead. The next box allows you to create a sub-entry. In the options section of the dialog you can enter text for a cross-reference or else enter the current page (the default). A page range has to be specially created by making a bookmark. To do this, select a block of text in the document and click ‘Bookmark’ in the ‘Links’ group of the ‘Insert’ tab on the ribbon. If you then click the ‘page range’ radio button in the Indexing dialog you can select the bookmark from the drop-down menu. The page range spanned by the bookmark is then used in the index, rather than the current page. At the bottom of the dialog, you can specify whether the page numbers are displayed as bold and/or italic if you wish. Then click the ‘Mark’ button and MS Word adds an invisible markup code to your document:

The markup follows the text you selected in the document, and will contain special codes to match any options you selected. In the example pictured above, the markup is: {·XE·"De·La·Warr·Pavilion·} (the medial dots (·) are displayed by MS Word to represent interword spaces when hidden text is turned on). When MS Word creates the index, it will use the markup, creating an entry in the index for each item of markup you have inserted into the document. I am  not covering the option codes which MS Word uses in the markup, as the whole of the markup will get deleted in the process of converting your print book into an e-book.

The mark index entry dialog helpfully remains open, so you can mark up the next entry quickly.

In your print book, you will need to hide the index codes before generating the index, or else the page numbers will  not be correct. Also be aware that the index codes might interfere with optional end-of-line hyphens if they are not hidden. To hide the index codes, click the ‘Pilcrow’ (¶) button in the ‘Paragraph’ group in the ‘Home’ tab on the Ribbon:

You may also need to set the display options available from the ‘Word Options’ button. To find this, click the ‘Office’ button, at the top-left of the Word window:

The ‘Word Options’ button is at the bottom of the menu which loads:

Some Styling Issues:

Now that is all very fine, but remember that you want to create your index according to the print industry conventions. And, in particular, you will have already decided whether to follow Oxford (UK) or Chicago (US) style for your index. (See my previous post on How to index an e-book for an overview of the various conventions in use in indexes.) In general, the index created by MS Word will follow the US convention of ending the index entry with a comma. It also pre-loads the cross-reference text with ‘See’ in italic and capitalised, according to US (Chicago) style. You will NOT be able to stop Word entering the commas in the index, but you can change the capitalisation for See by re-typing it. When the index is generated, a cross-reference will be preceeded by a full point, following US style. You cannot change this either.

So on balance, you might want to follow Chicago style, as it offers the line of least resistance. Should you insist on following Oxford style, you will have to edit the index manually once it has been generated.

It should also be pointed out that MS Word does NOT follow Chicago style when creating cross-references in index sub-entries. Here Chicago style says the cross-reference should be in brackets and lowercase and, whilst The Chicago Manual of Style does not specifically say so, in all the examples it lists and also in its own index, no cross-reference in index sub-entries has a full-point before it. So type the cross-reference carefully in the dialog according to the style you wish to follow. For Chicago style, make sure the brackets are in Roman, that the see or see under is in italic and that the rest of the cross-reference matches in style the reference in the main text. You will still need to go back to the index when it has been generated and edit out the full-point which preceeds the cross-reference. OR you could decide to go with what Word has generated, however wrong it is. If you do, then make sure what you are doing is consistently presented.

Alphabetising your index:

Whichever style you are following, you will still need to edit the index, as the tools in Word cannot possibly cope with the complexity of the printing industry conventions, particularly with regard to alphabetisation, which is so complicated that I have devoted the whole of my next post to it (to be linked here when it is published). There will inevitably be some items which at the very least require some resequencing once Word has created the index.

Changing the italicisation etc. of the index entry:

Coming back to the styling of the index entries, the basic principle in both methods is that the capitalisation and italic etc. should match in the index and in the main text. The ‘Mark Index Entry’ dialog in MS Word is set up to reflect this. The styling of the index entry matches whatever you selected in the main text by default. All very well and good, I hear people saying. BUT there are circumstances where this is inappropriate, such as when the indexed term in the main text has had some sort of special treatment, such as Small Capitals and/or bold text if it is part of a heading or falls at the beginning of the first line after a ‘scene break’, or possibly even if you have decided to switch displayed quotations into italic (not recommended!). You can change the styling of the text in the mark index entry dialog, and this works just fine for bold and italic: the index entry is restyled, leaving the main text unaltered. BUT if you apply other formatting, such as changing to/from small caps or superscript, for example, Word then applies this styling back to the selection in the main text as well. Which is very definitley NOT what you want.

In this case, place the insertion point immediately after the text you want to index (rather than selecting it), and click ‘Mark Index Entry’. The mark index entry dialog then opens with all fields completely blank. You can format the entry exactly as you wish and the index code is created where the insertion point was in the document. Follow this procedure to create multiple index entries for the same text as well, such as for a cross-reference.

Remember to follow the style guide (Oxford or Chicago) you have elected to use for the italicisation.

Generating the Index:

OK so when you have marked up all the indexed terms in the text, you will need to generate the index. To do this, create a new section to hold it in your MS Word document. Then click at the start of that section. In the Ribbon, click the ‘Insert Index’ button. A dialog will load which offers you the choice to create either a run-in or set-out index style (Word calls set-out ‘indented’, which is the default). My strong recommendation is to use ‘Set-out’ (or ‘indented’). A number of template options are also offered. I would also recommend using the default here, which is ‘From Template’. There is an option to right-align the page references, which I would most definitely NOT use. Indexes should be left-aligned in print books. Remember to hide the index codes first, before generating the index!

Clicking OK creates the index at the place in the document where the insertion point was. If you click in the index, it will be greyed-out in its entirety, because it has been auto-generated:

Perhaps I might add that, once the index has been created, should you mark further entries, or delete existing ones, if you click in the index to select it and then click the ‘update index’ button in the ribbon, Word will do just that, and … erm … update it!

To  delete an index entry, just delete the whole of the markup code. To edit an existing index entry, you will have to delete the markup and then do it all over again.

Styling the index using MS Word:

Unfortunately, this is just the start of making the index. You can see from the screenshot that Word has justified the index entries, whereas they would normally be set flush-left (ragged-right) in a print book. So you will need to begin by making it possible to edit the index. To do this, select it all and copy and paste it as formatted text into a new, blank section after the end of the index created by Word.

You will have to set up the columns in your new section. Two columns would be best in a typical paperback, but you might want to stretch to three if your book is in a larger format.

You will now see that the main index entries are styled by default in a style called ‘Index 1’ and the sub-entries are styled in a style called ‘Index 2’. And, whilst the tools only let you create entries and sub-entries, Word has built-in styles right down to ‘Index 9’ which could be used to style an index with more levels of sub-entries if you wanted one.

You will need to correct the choices Word has made for you by setting these styles to be left-aligned and if you want a larger hanging indent (I discuss this here) you will need to set this as well. If you are concerned about the linespacing, check that this is correct. You should be using a ‘lineheight*’ of ‘exactly …’ for your style NOT ‘single’. (*not really the subject of this post but extremely important! Particularly for endnotes. Check it out in the format paragraph dialog!!)

You will also probably want to separate the entries in the index with a blank line after the last entry begining with one letter and the first entry beginning with the next.

Now you need to correct the differences between your chosen style and whatever Word has created. You will have more to do if you have decided to follow Oxford style, but even if you have decided to follow Chicago style you will have some work to do. See above for details and also refer to my previous post on How to index an e-book.

Next, you will need to attend to the sequence of the index entries. This is a complex task, and you will need to read my forthcoming post on the subject and make another decision about the alphabetisation system to use and then re-arrange the entries in the index in strict accordance with that system.

Finally, you should re-select the old index and delete it completely.

And that covers how to use MS Word to generate the index in your print book. Quite a lot of work, but then making an index always is a lot of work. There is no way around it.

A lot of this post has related to print indexes. So long as there is an index file of some sort, you are ready to make your e-book index. The punctuation and sequence of that index is more important than the styling in MS Word, as this will be lost in the e-book conversion process. However, creating that index file is most obviously done using MS Word and it is worth devoting a post to how to go about that properly.

Next Steps: once the index is created in the print book file, you are ready to adapt it for use in your e-book and make it clickable.

Index to ‘how to …’ posts:

How to ‘unpack’ an epub file to edit the contents and see what’s inside.
How to understand what is inside an epub
How to link the html table of Contents in a Kindle e-book
How to restructure the html table of contents for a Kindle
How to delete the html cover for a Kindle ebook
How to link the cover IMAGE in a Kindle e-book
How to clean up your MS Word file before your get started
How to markup an MS Word file to identify the formats before importing it into an epub
How to create a new blank e-pub using Sigil
How to import your marked-up MS Word file into your ebook using Sigil
How to create and link a CSS stylesheet in an e-book using Sigil
How to replace the markup with CSS styles in your ebook using Sigil
How to style an e-book so it works with the limited CSS styling available to Kindle e-readers
How to understand the syntax of CSS
How to style Small Caps in an e-book
How to split your ebook up into chapters using Sigil
How to sequence your e-book
How to phrase the copyright declarations etc. in an e-book
How to generate the logical table of contents using Sigil
How to understand toc.ncx in an e-book
How to generate the html table of contents in an e-pub
How to style the html table of contents using CSS
How to create an html cover for your epub using Sigil
How to present references and notes in a book
How to use Mark Up to link notes in your e-book
How to present a bibliography in a book
How to use markup to link entries in a bibliography with the notes section
How to index an e-book
How to use the tools in MS Word to create an index
How to alphabetise an index or bibliography
How to adapt the print index in your MS Word file for an e-book using markup
How to adapt cross-references in your print index for e-book and how to use markup to make the links
How to understand content.opf
How to understand and edit the Metadata of an ebook using Sigil
How to understand the manifest in content.opf
How to understand the spine and guide in content.opf
How to test your e-pub using flightCrew in Sigil

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1 comment:

  1. This set of posts about indexing are really helpful. Thank you very much.

    I just thought I would remind you that in the first paragraph after the heading 'Alphabetising your index' you have in brackets '(to be linked here when it is published)', which you have now done.


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