Can Everton Jones find out how his father stole Emperor Bokassa’s diamonds and, more importantly, where he hid them; before the world and his brother get there first?
Click on the picture link in the sidebar to read an extract of my first novel, which was published by Paradise Press in August 2012.

Thursday, 28 August 2014

How to use markup to link entries in a bibliography with the notes section

If you want to link from the notes to the bibliography, you will do this most effectively using markup in your MS word file. This post explains how to do this.

You will need to add labels to each entry in the bibliography so that the links from the endnotes can find them. I would suggest making a printout of the bibliography and numbering the entries. Then these numbers can be used as the labels. Each number should be unique. Obviously, only do this after the sequence of the bibliography has been finalised.

An endnote might look something like this:

23 Rod Shelton, Bokassa’s Last Apostle, p. 34

and the corresponding entry in the bibliography might look something like:

Shelton, Rod, Bokassas Last Apostle (London: Paradise Press, 2012)

So begin by making the labels in the bibliography. In the MS Word file mark up each entry in the bibliography in turn as follows:

/bi/5/bbi/Shelton, Rod, /i/Bokassa’s Last Apostle/ii/ (London: Paradise Press, 2012)

The number hilited in yellow should be different for each entry in the bibliography and will be used to build the label. Be sure you have written these numbers down on a printout of the bibliography. Note also the markup for the italic formatting for the work title.

Now import the file into your e-book.

When you have done so, and have converted the markup for the italic to CSS styling, the entry will look like this:

<p>/bi/5/bbi/Shelton, Rod, <span class="italicText">Bokassas Last Apostle</span> (London: Paradise Press, 2012)</p>

All you then have to do is to convert the markup into the labels and formatting by using Find and Replace using Sigil to:

replace all instances of <p>/bi/ with <p class="bibliography" id="b to get:

<p class="bibliography" id="b5/bbi/Shelton, Rod, <span class="italicText">Bokassas Last Apostle</span> (London: Paradise Press, 2012)</p>

note: I have added the ‘b’ to the label to make it unique, but you could use any other character(s) as you wish.

Then replace all instances of /bbi/ with "> to get:

<p class="bibliography" id="b5">Shelton, Rod, <span class="italicText">Bokassas Last Apostle</span> (London: Paradise Press, 2012)</p>

You will need a corresponding entry in your CSS stylesheet for the bibliography entries, possibly something similar to that for the endnotes, such as:

.bibliography {font-size: 0.9em; text-align: left; margin-left: 2em; text-indent: -2em;}

This formats the entries in the bibliography 90% of the size of the main text and creates a 2em hanging indent, left aligned.

Explaining how to mark up the endnotes is a bit more involved:

The endnote in your MS Word document might look like this:

23 Rod Shelton, Bokassa’s Last Apostle, p. 34

It will firstly need marking up to identify the italics:

23 Rod Shelton, /i/Bokassa’s Last Apostle/ii/, p. 34

And then you will need to mark it up again to make the label for the link from the main text (click here to see my earlier post for an explanation; I have greyed out this part of the example, because it is covered elsewhere):

/en/1n23/een/23/eeen/ Rod Shelton, /i/Bokassa’s Last Apostle/ii/, p. 34

You need to add even more markup to build the link from the endnote to the bibliography (shown below in red, blue and green) The 5 hilited in yellow should match the label in the bibliography. Refer to your annotated printout when marking up the file:

/en/1n23/een/23/eeen/ Rod Shelton, /bl/5/bbl//i/Bokassa’s Last Apostle/ii//bbbl/, p. 34

IMPORTANT: make sure the markup you are adding encloses any other markup already in the file. In this case the  /bbl/ /bbbl/ should enclose the /i/ … /ii/ :

 … /bbl//i/ … /ii//bbbl/

When this has been converted into unformatted text, imported into your e-book, and has had the styling and endnote markup converted, it will look like this in code view in the e-book chapter:

<p id="1n23" class="endnote"><sup>23</sup> Rod Shelton, /bl/5/bbl/<span class="italicText">Bokassa’s Last Apostle</span>/bbbl/, p. 34</p>

‘All’ you now need do is:

replace /bl/ with <a href="Bibliography.xhtml#b to get:

<p id="1n23" class="endnote"><sup>23</sup> Rod Shelton, <a href="Bibliography.xhtml#b5/bbl/<span class="italicText">Bokassa’s Last Apostle</span>/bbbl/, p. 34</p>

NB Bibliography.xhtml is the filename of the chapter containing the bibliography. If your filename is different, you will have to substitute that instead. As the bibliography and the endnotes are in the same folder in the e-book, there is no need to specify a path.

and replace /bbl/ with "> to get:

<p id="1n23" class="endnote"><sup>23</sup> Rod Shelton, <a href="Bibliography.xhtml#b5"><span class="italicText">Bokassa’s Last Apostle</span>/bbbl/, p. 34</p>

and finally replace /bbbl/ with </a> to get:

<p id="1n23" class="endnote"><sup>23</sup> Rod Shelton, <a href="Bibliography.xhtml#b5"><span class="italicText">Bokassa’s Last Apostle</span></a>, p. 34</p>

Which builds the link to the label you created in the bibliography earlier. Clicking on ‘Bokassa’s Last Apostle’ in the endnote now jumps directly to the full entry for that work in the bibliography. (The user will have to click the physical ‘back’ button on their e-reader to return to the endnote and again to go back to the place they left off from in the main text. Because there could be multiple links to a bibliography entry from different endnotes, a ‘return’ link is impossible. And anyway, as I have said before, requires more actions on a Kindle than simply using the ‘back’ button, so, really, isn’t a good idea.)

So, although there is a lot of earlier markup to mention, there are only five extra items of markup which this post refers to. If you have been following this, you will now have links from the note cues in the main text to the endnotes and also from references in those endnotes to the full entry in the bibliography.

Linking to Author-Date style citations:

In the author-date system, the citations are worked into the main text by means of a bracket: ‘... (Shelton, 1987a) …’

The best way to deal with these would be to link directly to the bibliography from the main text. To do this, follow the procedure above but markup the main text, rather than the endnote. So you would have:

‘… /bl/5/bbl/(Shelton, 1987a)/bbbl/ …’

Or, arguably better:

‘… (/bl/5/bbl/Shelton, 1987a/bbbl/) …’

And then make the replacements outlined in the section immediately above.

Proceed in exactly the same way if using the Vancouver or Number referencing systems.

Linking cross-references in the Bibliography:

Unfortunately, we are not quite finished! You may well have cross-references in the bibliography, such as:

Jordan see Price, Katie
Price, Katie [Jordan], My Life as a Bimbo (London: Made Up Books, 1754)

In this case, the main entry will already have been given a numbered label, following the procedure outlined above. (The markup for this is repeated in the last line of the example below.) Turn the cross-reference into a link to the main entry by marking it up like this in your MS Word file (shown in red in the first line):

/bib/Jordan /i/see/ii/ /bxr/69/bbxr/Price, Katie/bbbxr/
/bi/69/bbi/Price, Katie [Jordan], My Life as a Bimbo (London: Made Up Books, 1754).

When it is imported into your e-book as unformatted text, the cross-reference will look like this:

<p>/bib/Jordan /i/see/ii/ /bxr/69/bbxr/Price, Katie/bbbxr/<p>

first make the replacements for the styling:

replace <p>/bib/ with <p class="bibliography">
replace /i/ with <span class="italicText">
and replace /ii/ with </span>

(You will need this style in your CSS stylesheet: .italicText {font-style: italic;}, along with a style for the bibliography as indicated above. )

and then make the link:

replace /bxr/ with <a href="#b
and replace /bbxr/ with ">
and then replace /bbbxr/ with </a>

after you have done all of that you should have:

<p class="bibliography">Jordan <span class="italicText">see</span> <a href="#b69">Price, Katie</a></p>

NB all lines in the Bibliography will need to begin with EITHER /bi/ OR /bib/ so that the CSS styling for bibliography entries is applied to everything. And, as the link and label are in this case in the same file, there is no need for the filename in the href for the link. In the event that the lady in the example has more than one main entry in your bibliography, I would direct the cross-reference to the first of her publications. Should there be publications both under her pseudonym and her real name, then I would have though a see also cross-reference would be called for at the end of each group of entries. As each cross-reference will be linked to just ONE main entry, the method outlined above will work in all possible cases, however complicated.

Next Steps: Now you can get on with creating an index and linking from the index entries to the main text. I begin explaining this with a post on how an index should be created and formatted in a print book, go on to explain how to use the tools in MS Word to do that, and then explain how to adapt the MS Word index to make a clickable index in your e-book using markup. An additional post will detail how to alphabetise the entries in both the bibliography and the index, which is a tad more involved than it would at first seem. Then, once you have edited in the metadata, your epub e-book will be ready for testing and conversion to Kindle.

Index to ‘how to …’ posts:

How to ‘unpack’ an epub file to edit the contents and see what’s inside.
How to understand what is inside an epub
How to link the html table of Contents in a Kindle e-book
How to restructure the html table of contents for a Kindle
How to delete the html cover for a Kindle ebook
How to link the cover IMAGE in a Kindle e-book
How to clean up your MS Word file before your get started
How to markup an MS Word file to identify the formats before importing it into an epub
How to create a new blank e-pub using Sigil
How to import your marked-up MS Word file into your ebook using Sigil
How to create and link a CSS stylesheet in an e-book using Sigil
How to replace the markup with CSS styles in your ebook using Sigil
How to style an e-book so it works with the limited CSS styling available to Kindle e-readers
How to understand the syntax of CSS
How to style Small Caps in an e-book
How to split your ebook up into chapters using Sigil
How to sequence your e-book
How to phrase the copyright declarations etc. in an e-book
How to generate the logical table of contents using Sigil
How to understand toc.ncx in an e-book
How to generate the html table of contents in an e-pub
How to style the html table of contents using CSS
How to create an html cover for your epub using Sigil
How to present references and notes in a book
How to use Mark Up to link notes in your e-book
How to present a bibliography in a book
How to use markup to link entries in a bibliography with the notes section
How to index an e-book
How to use the tools in MS Word to create an index
How to alphabetise an index or bibliography
How to adapt the print index in your MS Word file for an e-book using markup
How to adapt cross-references in your print index for e-book and how to use markup to make the links
How to understand content.opf
How to understand and edit the Metadata of an ebook using Sigil
How to understand the manifest in content.opf
How to understand the spine and guide in content.opf
How to test your e-pub using flightCrew in Sigil
How to test your e-pub using epubcheck
How to convert an e-pub to Kindle using kindlegen

TinyURL for this post:


  1. Thanks a lot for sharing us about this update. Hope you will not get tired on making posts as informative as this.
    seo company

  2. A bibliography can be easily described as any work that describes a book. You might think that making one is tedious and boring considering its nature. On the contrary, writing a bibliography can be quite a fulfilling experience that can help you understand the nature of the text, as well as gain insight into the mindset of the author who created it. See more annotated bibliography generator apa

  3. Good advice, especially helpful to publish all the details. Author fellow that shared this. I once wrote an essay for one student on the topic free tips in intrenet. By the way, who needs an essay, I suggest. People who want to help others without against compensation, a rarity today.

  4. Oh it is an incredible review, thanks a lot for sharing it. May you give me an advice, where I may read an I really need it.

  5. This comment has been removed by a blog administrator.

  6. I am so sitting tight for another blog this way.
    buy backlinks

  7. Going to graduate school was a positive decision for me. I enjoyed the coursework, the presentations, the fellow students, and the professors. And since my company reimbursed 100% of the tuition, the only cost that I had to pay on my own was for books and supplies. Otherwise, I received a free master’s degree. All that I had to invest was my time. internet marketing solutions

  8. This is a good post. This post gives truly quality information. I’m definitely going to look into it. Really very useful tips are provided here. Thank you so much. Keep up the good works
    website optimization

  9. In order to rank high in the serps for you Bidding Directory, you need to have a strong backlink campaign for your website buy dofollow backlinks at a reasonable price.


Twitter Bird Gadget