Can Everton Jones find out how his father stole Emperor Bokassa’s diamonds and, more importantly, where he hid them; before the world and his brother get there first?
Click on the picture link in the sidebar to read an extract of my first novel, which was published by Paradise Press in August 2012.

Thursday, 28 August 2014

How to use markup to link entries in a bibliography with the notes section

If you want to link from the notes to the bibliography, you will do this most effectively using markup in your MS word file. This post explains how to do this.

You will need to add labels to each entry in the bibliography so that the links from the endnotes can find them. I would suggest making a printout of the bibliography and numbering the entries. Then these numbers can be used as the labels. Each number should be unique. Obviously, only do this after the sequence of the bibliography has been finalised.

An endnote might look something like this:

23 Rod Shelton, Bokassa’s Last Apostle, p. 34

and the corresponding entry in the bibliography might look something like:

Shelton, Rod, Bokassas Last Apostle (London: Paradise Press, 2012)

So begin by making the labels in the bibliography. In the MS Word file mark up each entry in the bibliography in turn as follows:

/bi/5/bbi/Shelton, Rod, /i/Bokassa’s Last Apostle/ii/ (London: Paradise Press, 2012)

The number hilited in yellow should be different for each entry in the bibliography and will be used to build the label. Be sure you have written these numbers down on a printout of the bibliography. Note also the markup for the italic formatting for the work title.

Now import the file into your e-book.

When you have done so, and have converted the markup for the italic to CSS styling, the entry will look like this:

Thursday, 21 August 2014

How to present a bibliography in a book

This post is about how to set out the bibliography in a book.

I am beginning my posts about the more complex parts of the end matter in an e-book with a discussion of the conventions which apply in print books. In my opinion, an e-book should, as far as possible follow the format of a print book, albeit with certain differences to take account of the limitations of the e-book format and also of the advantages which it offers, such as hyperlinking.

The bibliography is a list of the works you have quoted from or consulted or even which you would recommend to a reader. The reader is directed to a note from the text and then from the note to the full description of the source in the entry in the bibliography. There are certain differences if the book uses the Author-Date referencing system (see below). Some entries in the bibliography might NOT be related to notes, for instance if it is a work you have consulted but not quoted from.

Structure of a basic Bibliography entry:

A citation in the bibliography should begin with the first-named author’s surname. The initial(s) or first name(s) would then follow. This is to help the reader find the entries easily. Whether additional authors’ names should be inverted in this way is an editorial decision you will need to make and then stick to throughout the entire Bibliography. The usual method is to list the authors thus (Oxford style):

Shelton, R. W., J. Dixon and M. Harth, The exigiencies of running an independent gay press (London: Paradise Press, 2015).

In Oxford Style, the place of publication, publisher (if given) and date are printed in brackets, with no comma between the brackets and the title. Within the brackets, the place of publication (if given) is separated from the publisher by a colon and the date is preceeded by a comma. NB Work titles should in general be in italic (but follow your style guide: chapter titles would normally be printed in Roman and quoted, for example) and author initials take a full-point and are spaced. The author name(s) are separated from each other and from the title by commas. The entry ends with a full-point.

Chicago differs, in that the author(s) names and the title are followed by full-points. (Multiple authors still separated from each other by commas, no double punctuation after a full-point.) No brackets are used in bibliography entries (brackets are used in note citations, as in the example of Oxford style above):

Thursday, 14 August 2014

How to use Mark Up to link notes in your e-book

This post covers how to link the notes in your e-book using markup.

I am assuming here that your book is in an MS Word file and contains notes of some kind. See my post on how to present notes in a print book for important information about how these should be formatted. If you have no notes, then this post is not relevant.

In an e-book, because there are no pages as such, the concept of a footnote is meaningless. So the first thing you will have to do is to convert all the footnotes into endnotes.

Once you have done that you are going to have to identify the note cues in the text using markup. I am assuming here that your note cues are superscript numbers. These need to be converted into hyperlinks to the notes. I should add that styling a superscript number using CSS might not work on the kindle, so I am using an html tag instead.

If you are using a different referencing system, such as Author-Date or the Vancouver system, you will need to hyperlink directly to the bibliography. See my forthcoming post on how to link to the bibliography to find out how to use markup to do this.

So, going back to endnotes cued by superscript numbers, you might have this in chapter one in the MS Word file:

‘… arguably, at least according to Mr Stevens23, the woman was insane at the time of the incident …’

which will need to be coded like this in the final ebook chapter (I will explain each part of the code fully below):

Thursday, 7 August 2014

How to present references and notes in a book

Your book may contain notes, either as footnotes and/or endnotes, and possibly also refer to other works as references to items in a bibliography. If, like me, you have the ambition to present your e-book in a manner as close as possible to a print book, you will need to know the various conventions  in use in the publishing industry and then adapt these for your e-book in a sensible way, taking full advantage of the format whilst also working around its limitations. This post covers how the notes should look. A further post will deal with how to make this happen in your e-book, using markup to make creating the links easier.


Footnotes should be brief and relate closely to the text on the page. Endnotes can be more discursive although, if over-long, are perhaps better if worked into the main text.

Footnotes in an e-book:

I should point out right away that, because there are no actual pages in an e-book, there is nowhere to put a footnote. It may in the future be possible to implement footnotes in an e-book as some sort of pop-up window, but that will depend on the roll-out of epub 3.0, the new epub standard. As the majority of e-book readers still rely on epub 2.0 documents, this won’t be happening any time soon.

So in an e-book ALL notes to the text will have to be endnotes. That is, notes collected together at the end of either the chapter or the book.

Converting Footntoes to Endnotes:

So, when preparing your book text for conversion to e-book, you will therefore have to convert all the footnotes into endnotes. This can easily by done using the ‘Convert …’ button in the footnotes and endnotes dialog in MS Word: (In the ‘References’ tab, click ‘ ’ next to ‘Footnotes’ to get this dialog.):

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