Can Everton Jones find out how his father stole Emperor Bokassa’s diamonds and, more importantly, where he hid them; before the world and his brother get there first?
Click on the picture link in the sidebar to read an extract of my first novel, which was published by Paradise Press in August 2012.

Wednesday, 19 November 2014

How to test your e-book using epubcheck

You will need to test your e-book against the industry-standard epub validation program, called epubcheck. You may well have checked it already using the tools in Sigil, called flightCrew, and that will have caught most errors. (See my post on using flightCrew to test your e-book.) And I would definitely advise you to do this first. But epubcheck is a more stringent test and may well throw up errors which flightCrew might have let through. More importantly, Apple and other resellers will run your e-pub through epubcheck and return it if there is a single error, so save yourself some heartache and make sure your e-book WILL pass.


There ARE some handy versions of epubcheck which allow you just to drag and drop the epub file onto an icon and then run it by epubcheck. BUT these are made by third parties and often do not implement the latest version of epubcheck. It is better to get the pucker, latest, official, incarnation of epubcheck directly from IDPF and then you can be sure you have a valid e-book.

How to get epubcheck:

The places to download software from can change, and versions update from time to time. At the time of writing, the current version of epubcheck is 3.0.1 and can be downloaded from here: https://github.com/IDPF/epubcheck/releases/tag/v3.0.1. If that link does not work, you might try: https://github.com/idpf/epubcheck from where you should be able to find a link to the latest official download site. The first link took me to a page from where I found the download link for epubcheck-3.0.1.zip, which I clicked and saved the file to my desktop (strongly recommended).

[update 14 August 2017: follow the second link above and find the latest version: v4.0.2 which fixes an important security vulnerability.]

Once you have the .zip file, you should extract it by right-clicking on the icon and selecting ‘extract all …’ from the pop-up menu. Select the desktop as the destination of the file from the dialog and click the ‘extract’ button (Windows). If you have a Mac, just double-click on the .zip file and it should extract itself automatically. For some reason, I ended up with a folder called epubcheck-3.0.1 containing another folder with the same name:

Saturday, 15 November 2014

Indexing posts FINALLY updated!!!

I have finally (?) finished working through my posts on indexing an e-book and have just posted the update to the last one. It has been a major hassle!!! Keeping the whole of the topic in my head at the same time has been a very significant task. However it is now done and I am immensely pleased with the outcome! In these posts, I take a print index and re-structure it for e-books, using links instead of page references. This requires some significant style choices. I have generated TWO models: one which uses the style of the print index as a guide and slots the links into the places where the page references were (which I have called RUN-ON) and another in which the links are dropped down onto a line of their own and set out fully (a FULLY SET-OUT style). This is in my opinion much more elegant and better suited to e-books. Along the way I was astonished to find that all the differences between Chicago and Oxford style vanished, along with the punctuation in the index. It functions entirely visually, with the level of the indent representing the relationship between one item and the next. The links thenselves can be constructed using markup in your original file and then made good in your e-book using find and replace in Sigil. Of course it is far from a trivial exercise, as anything connected with indexing is always going to be a major headache (well, it will be if you want to get it right!). As this mammoth series of posts nears an end, I am posting to draw attention to my finished contribution to indexing e-books and am actively seeking comments/discussion of the topic. If you have an opinion, please comment on the posts or/and contact me via the contact box in the right-hand sidebar.

The indexing posts begin with: How to index an e-book, which gives an overview of how to present an index, and then I go on in: How to use the tools in MS Word to create an index to explain how to use the tools built in to MS Word to do this. Alphabetising an index is far from as simple as it may sound, and so I have had to devote an entire post to the topic, which is here: How to alphabetise an index or bibliography. Then there are the key posts on How to adapt the print index in your MS Word file for an e-book using markup and How to adapt cross-references in your print index for e-book and how to use markup to make the links. These set out the styles I have developed and how to implement them using markup in your MS Word file and find and replace using Sigil in your e-book.

Wednesday, 12 November 2014

How to test your e-pub using flightCrew in Sigil

Once you have a completed epub e-book, you need to test it.

Proofing:

If there are any errors, they are usually because of careless typing mistakes. After all, Sigil won’t let you close your file unless the html is syntactically correct. Unfortunately, this does NOT necessarily mean your html achieves what you intended! Sigil does its best to understand what you meant, but isn’t clairvoyant. If it mends your html it will produce valid html code, but this might not display as you want it to. Careful proofing is always necesary, and I strongly recommend against clicking the ‘correct automatically’ option which Sigil offers when it finds a mistake. Go back and find the mistake and correct it manually.

So I’m assuming you have already proofed your e-book and corrected the styling and made sure there are no obvious mistakes. For instance you will need to check that italic and boldface render correctly and that any links for indexes, footnotes etc. work properly.

One possible pitfall is if your <span> tags do not close properly. The <span> tag in html just identifies a section of the text and allows you to label or format it. I have used <span> tags for the labels which links jump to and also for italic and small caps. You might have an opening <span class="italicText">, or <span class="smallCaps"> or <span id="x3"> tag, for exampe. BUT the closing </span> tag looks the same for each. Both Sigil AND the e-reader will assume that a closing </span> tag closes the <span> which immediately preceeds it. IF your closing tags are in the wrong place the results will be unpredicatble. For instance:

<span class="italicText">an example of <span class="boldFace">a mistake</span> you might make</span>

will render like this:

an example of a mistake you might make.

In this example, the <span> tags overlap, generating bold and italic in the intersection.

Any error like this will NOT be picked up by Sigil. You will have to look for this or other similar errors and correct them manually. Hopefully, if you have placed the markup in the correct places and made the replacements in the correct sequence there should not be any errors of this type.

Once your file has been proofed, you will then need to use the built-in tools in Sigil, called ‘flightCrew’, to check it. To use them, just click the green ‘tick’ button in the toolbar:

The results of the validation are displayed at the bottom of the main Sigil window. Hopefully you will see this:

[added: 29 Oct. 2015: The new version of Sigil implements Flightcrew as a plugin, which you need to install and configure properly. I explain how to do this here.]

If there are errors, then you will need to track them down and correct them. Sigil will just report on what it finds, and ONE error frequently generates TWO error messages, which can be offputting. To generate some examples, I went back to a working e-pub and made a number of deliberate mistakes:

Wednesday, 5 November 2014

How to understand the spine and guide in content.opf

Content.opf is the most important part of an e-book. This is my final post about this file, covering the <spine> and <guide> portions. The <manifest> is detailed here, the <metadata> is covered in this post (including how to use the metadata editor in Sigil) and the sequence begins with an overview here.

The spine is found between the opening <spine> tag and the closing </spine> tags in content.opf.

Entering the ncx table of contents in the spine:

Firstly, note the opening <spine> tag:

<spine toc="ncx">

The ncx table of contents MUST be referenced in the opening spine tag exactly as shown above, using the spine toc attribute. Like all other items in the spine the ncx table of contents is referenced in the spine by the id assigned to it in the <manifest>. In this case Sigil by default uses an id="ncx". I can see no logical reason in the specification why that particular id should be mandatory and I would have thought any other id would do, provided it matches in the opening <spine > tag and in the <manifest>. However I cannot see any good reason for NOT using it either. Sigil does it this way automatically and it works and follows the example in the specification, so why change it? See here in my earlier post about the <manifest> for more information about how Sigil labels the ncx.

Syntax of the Spine:

The spine part of content.opf is essentially just a list of the items in the e-book which are to be displayed in order. Each item in the spine is referenced by the id given to the item in the manifest. So a typical spine would look like this:

Saturday, 1 November 2014

How to understand the manifest in content.opf

Content.opf is the most important part of your e-book. This post covers what you will find between the opening <manifest> and closing </manifest> tags in content.opf. Earlier posts cover understanding content.opf and understanding and editing the <metadata> in content.opf. I will go on to explain the remainder of this file: the <spine> and <guide> sections.

Each line of content.opf between the <manifest> tags refers to the various different parts of the e-book. Each distinct item within the e-book must be listed in the manifest (with the important exception of content.opf which should NOT be included). Sigil will create a valid entry in the manifest for you for each item as you add it to the e-book. However you WILL need to make some manual changes to the manifest when linking your html table of contents and cover image for kindle, so it is important that you understand how it is constructed.

Syntax of an item tag:

The manifest consists of a series of <item /> tags. One for each … well … item in the e-book. Note that these tags have no closing tag, instead each tag is closed by the ‘ />’ at the end (the space matters). Here is an example:

<item href="Text/Section0001.xhtml" id="Section0001.xhtml" media-type="application/xhtml+xml" />

This is the entry which Sigil has created automatically for the blank first chapter of the e-book. The first thing in the tag is href="Text/Section0001.xhtml". This is the URL of the item, and tells the e-book reader where to find the file. In this case the filename is Section0001.xhtml and the path from content.opf to the file is ‘Text/’. (The ‘Text’ folder is in the same place as content.opf and the path tells the e-reader to look in that folder to find the file.) It might be helpful to include an image of the contents of the OEBPS folder at this point:

Saturday, 25 October 2014

How to understand and edit the Metadata of an ebook using Sigil

The easiest way to deal with the metadata in your ebook is to use Sigil to create it. Metadata is information about the publication, such as author, title, ISBN etc. To open the Metadata editor in Sigil, select Metadator Editor … from the Tools menu:


In a blank ebook, the metadata editor will open in Sigil with no information in it:


The Metadata Editor: Introductory:

The top of the metadata editor dialog has spaces for three key pieces of metadata: the Title, Author and Language:


In essence, all you need do is type in the title and author and select a language from the drop-down menu. The author name should be typed in the normal order: ‘Rod Shelton’. Next to the author field is another one labelled: ‘File As:’.


Type in the author’s name as it would appear in an index: ‘Shelton, Rod’, which is the order … well … in which the e-book should be filed. (See my post on alphabetising an index for detailed guidance on the conventions for alphabetising names: it’s far from as obvious as it might at first seem!)

Other items of metadata, such as the ISBN, date of publication, etc, can be added by clicking the ‘Add Basic’ button at the top right of the dialog. Add other authors, or contributors, editors, illustrators etc. by clicking the ‘Add Role’ button, which is immediately below:


Each piece of metadata you add creates an entry in the <metadata> section of content opf. ONE entry per item of metadata.

Syntax of the <metadata>:

The metadata section in content.opf begins with an opening <metadata …> tag and ends with a closing </metadata> tag.

Inside the opening tag there are links to the xml namespace conventions for the dublin core and opf specifications:

Saturday, 18 October 2014

How to understand content.opf

OPF stands for Open Packaging Format and is one of the standards adopted by epub. It is used to construct a file called content.opf which describes the content of the ebook. This file is the most important part of an e-book. I am going to devote at least four posts to it including this one. In the process, I will also cover how the metadata is entered in content.opf and how to edit this using the tools in Sigil. You will need to do this to complete your e-book.

This post is purely informative. You do not need to change and SHOULD NOT change anything described in this post. Any necessary changes to content.opf for an epub can be made by Sigil. There ARE changes you need to make maually to content.opf to convert that epub to Kindle, but these are fully described in other posts.

Perhaps the most accessible way to examine content.opf is to open it using Sigil. This post is devoted to the header part of the file (the first two lines of the example below). In a new, blank, epub created by Sigil, content.opf looks like this:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8" standalone="yes"?>
<package xmlns="http://www.idpf.org/2007/opf" unique-identifier="BookId" version="2.0">
<metadata
>
<dc:identifier id="BookId" opf:scheme="UUID">urn:uuid:
</dc:identifier>
<dc:identifier
></dc:identifier>

</metadata>
<manifest
  … >

</manifest>
<spine
>

</spine>
<guide />
</package>


(I have replaced details not covered in this post with an ellipsis (…) and the text picked out in red is like that just for the purposes of illustration within this post.)

By way of explanation, in the first line:

Thursday, 9 October 2014

How to adapt cross-references in your print index for e-book and how to use markup to make the links

This post addresses the cross-references in an index and how these can be adapted from the print index for an e-book index, including how to make the links using markup. The topic is fairly complex, and so I had to split it out of my previous post to do it justice.

In my last post on how to adapt a print index to e-book, I developed two styles for an e-book index: either RUN-ON or FULLY SET-OUT. The run-on style used links as direct replacements for the page references, and fitted these links in with the style of the index. Setting the index out required a more radical re-working, the main idea of which was to drop each of the links down onto a line by itself. Although it was NOT my primary intention, the outcome has been that all style differences between Oxford and Chicago disappear along with all the punctuation in the FULLY SET-OUT style, which is the style I would recommend for an e-book index.

This post has been completely revised and re-worked 15 November 2014: taking account of the revisions to my last post and correcting a few errors. Along the way, I hope it is better presented and that the exposition is more logically organised.

Common Principles:

There are several issues which are common to all e-book indexes, no matter what style is adopted. I will go through these first:

Differentiating the Links:

I have overlooked the importance of this topic up to now. The index contains links to specific places in the main text AND ALSO cross-references which will need converting into links to other places in the index (the subject of this post). These two sorts of links function in different ways and yet they will look the same to the user. This is potentially confusing. I think the solution is to follow a convention that links preceeded by ‘see’ or ‘see also’ will be to the index and that links by themselves will be to the main text.

This has to be an overarching principle for cross-references in an e-book index because the way the links work is absoultely key to the index functioning in a logical and consistent way for the user.

When to use double- entries:

Following a main heading or a sub-entry you may have just a SINGLE ‘see’ cross-reference to another entry in the index which itself has just ONE page reference after it. In this case and in this case only, you can substitute a double-entry. Both the cross-reference AND the other index entry it refers to can be made into hyperlinks to the same place in the main text.

You would delete the ‘see’ and the cross-reference, linking just the heading (or sub-entry), and so both links would behave and look like a normal index entry. This would work whatever style of e-book index you want, RUN-ON (both Oxford and Chicago) or FULLY SET-OUT: the outcome would always be the same.

The benefit for the reader is that it saves them a click when following up the cross-reference.

Take for example this print index in Oxford style:

Rod Shelton, see Shelton, Rod

Shelton, Rod  123

In this example, the main entry has just one page reference after it and so when linking the index it would be turned into a hyperlink to that location in the main text:

Rod Shelton, see Shelton, Rod

Shelton, Rod → links to the main text

The best way to make the cross-reference in an e-book is to turn the secondary entry into a link to the same place as well (i.e. a double-entry):

Rod Shelton → links to the same place in the main text

Shelton, Rod

Note that the neither link is preceeded by ‘see’ and that both links jump directly to the main text. They BOTH look like (and behave like) normal index entries.

The foregoing only applies to ‘see’ cross-references. A single ‘see also’ cross-reference would follow an index entry, and so cannot be turned into a double entry; whether it finds one or more than one page reference it should still link to the index. ONLY use double entries for ‘see’ cross-references, NEVER after ‘see also’.

Cross-references to sub-entries:

Chicago says to refer to a sub-entry using the headword, a colon and the sub-entry, like this: ‘honorifics: capitalisation of’. I recommend following this style.

Putting this example into context, the e-book index might read:

personal titles see honorifics: capitalisation of

Oxford uses a comma instead of a colon (well, the index in New Hart’s Rules follows this practice, the book itself has no guidance on the matter). For your e-book index I recommend using a colon whether your original print index was in Oxford or Chicago style.

This avoids the difficulty that if either part of the compound reference is inverted or itself contains a comma, the cross-reference is rendered too complicated to be useful. For instance, in the index to The Chicago Manual of Style, under the heading: ‘abbreviations, specific’ there is a sub-entry: ‘genus, subspecies, and such’. Combined into a compound cross-reference this would become: ‘abbreviations, specific: genus, subspecies, and such’, which is far better than: ‘abbreviations, specific, genus, subspecies, and such’, where the two parts can’t easily be distinguished. Obviously there is still a problem if either part of the compound reference contains a colon, but this will be much less common than a comma. (See also difficulties with sub-sub-entries below.)

Quite apart from dealing with the difficulty explained above, a further logic for this suggestion is that the colon is used in my SET-OUT e-book style at the end of a line to show that the indented entries on the line below relate to the heading. Using a colon to separate the two parts of a cross-reference to a sub-entry follows the same pattern, giving a colon in my SET-OUT style a single significance.

The other way of cross-referencing to a sub-entry in Chicago style is to use the formula: ‘See under’. I do not recommend using this in an e-book index, as the method using a colon discussed above makes it easier for the reader to identify the linked entry after they have jumped to it by clicking the link.

Logically, a ‘See under’ cross-reference directs the reader to a main heading and then requires them to scan down to find the relevant sub-entry. This seems crazy to me in the context of an e-book, as you can – and I think should – link directly to the sub-entry. The text of the link should reflect the item it jumps to, not the main heading further up the page, which, if the link works correctly, would most likely be on a previous screen!

It seems to me that ALL cross-reference links to the index should use text which exactly matches the entry they link to. This reasoning also informs the discussion immediately below.

‘Reading’ from/to a sub-entry to/from a heading in a cross-reference:

Recalling a discussion here in my previous post, a sub-entry can combine with its heading to form a complete phrase which ‘reads’ from/to one to/from the other, for example under: ‘honorifics’ you might have the subheading: ‘capitalisation of’. Together, they ‘read’ like this: ‘capitalisation of honorifics’. It might be tempting to use this for the cross-reference link, without a colon. However I recommend keeping the colon and following a consistent order: ‘heading: sub-entry’. In this case it would become: ‘honorifics: capitalisation of’. This will help the reader find the item after they have clicked the link. Yes, the linked item should appear at the top of the e-reader screen, but even so it can still be difficult to identify. Particularly if the sub-entry ends up at the top and the heading is stranded on the previous screen! (And see also my footnote on readability at the end of this post.)

One important detail I also covered was that entries in the same block of the index (i.e. contiguous entries with the same level of indentation) should ‘read’ the same way either from the headword to the sub-entry or from the sub-entry to the headword. This nicety will NOT be possible to maintain in a block of cross-references, because the items in such a list would have been drawn from disparate parts of the index and as such will appear out of context. It is more important that the order: ‘headword: sub-entry’ be consistently applied in the cross-references so as to help the reader locate the entries than for the cross-references to ‘read’ in the same way within the same block of cross-references. Obviously still try to ensure the actual index entries – as opposed to the cross references – ‘read’ in a consistent direction.

Furthermore, it now occurs to me, you may have a block of cross-references to main and sub-entries mixed in with each other, where the issue of ‘reading’ in a particular direction or not has no significance.

(The foregoing was written in the context of a SET-OUT e-book index, however the conclusion is just as valid in a RUN-ON e-book index; for ‘block’, read ‘list’ of cross-references.)

Alphabetisation of cross-references:

Cross-references will always be either to a main entry or compound reference such as: ‘mainentry: sub-entry’ and in either case the alphabetisation begins with a main entry which will have no linking phrase in front of it.

In a discussion here in my earlier post I did say you should ignore any linking phrase at the start of an index entry when alphabetising it. I think I would do the same for the sub-entry part of a compound cross-reference. So I would alphabetetise the following cross-reference on the words picked out in red: ‘see apostrophe: in Afrikaans’, missing out the linking word: ‘in’.

In practice this is unlikely to be of significance as it is extremely unlikely that two compound cross-references under the same headword will have identical first parts.

Starting/Ending links:

Links would be either to main entries or to sub-entries. In the case of a main entry, the whole entry is going to be a noun or noun phrase, and the whole of this should be linked when used in a cross-reference. For cross-references to sub-entries, as outlined above, the full reference would be given as: ‘heading: sub-entry’. IF the sub-entry part of the compound cross-reference is prefaced by a linking phrase, such as ‘in’ or ‘concerning’, etc. it should still be included in the link: run the link continuously from the start to the end of the cross-reference in all cases.

The notion of only linking part of the reference which I discussed in my previous post was to make the alphabetisation more apparent to the reader. In the case of a cross-reference, you want to make the reader’s task easier when finding the cross-referenced item after clicking the link and so you need to present the cross-reference linked in its entirety.

Difficulties with sub-sub-entries:

These posts only consider print indexes with sub-entries. Sub-sub-entries would be even more ungainly to accommodate, quite apart from not being possible to generate using the tools in MS Word. However IF you really have to include sub-sub-entries, then I might suggest either just using two colons in cross-references to them according to this pattern: ‘see heading: sub-entry: sub-sub-entry’ OR else use a formula such as ‘see sub-sub-entry under heading: sub-entry’. As you can see neither method is very satisfactory and I would strongly recommend against using sub-sub-entries if at all possible.

One way to get around having sub-sub-entries it is to combine the heading and sub-headings into a number of different main entries and then make the sub-sub-entries into sub-entries under each of the combined headings. For instance in the index in Hart, they have done this:

article, definite:
   in Arabic  108, 198 ✔
   …
   in titles  133, 136–7
article, indefinite  133, 136, 184
   with abbreviations  174
   in index  362
   in lists  286

Avoiding:

article:
   definite:
      in Arabic  108, 198 ✘
      …
    indefinite:
      …

A further wrinkle given in Hart is to use a see also cross-reference to direct the reader to a new main entry containing the sub-sub-entries. In his example:

moorlands:
   enclosure  198, 200, 201
   industries  201, 205
      charcoal-burning  197
      coalmining  201
      tin-mining  197 ✘

   roads  201

could become:

industries in moorlands:
   charcoal-burning  197
   coalmining  201
   tin-mining  197 ✔


moorlands:
   enclosure  198, 200, 201
   roads  201
   see also industries in moorlands

which has no sub-sub-entries.

And that covers the issues and recommendations which are common to a RUN ON and a FULLY SET-OUT e-book index.

I originally wrote this post for the SET OUT style of e-book index, and so I am presenting that FIRST:

STYLING a SET-OUT e-book index:

The overarching consideration in this style is that each cross-reference should be a link on a separate line, appropriately indented.

Single ‘see’ cross-reference from a main entry finding ONE page reference:
As I have outlined above, turn a single ‘see’ cross-reference to another entry followed by just one page reference into a double-entry.

see’ cross-reference from a main entry finding multiple page references:

If the cross-referenced main entry has two or more page references after it:

Ken Livingstone, see Livingstone, Ken

Livingstone, Ken  457, 459

the page references will have been turned into two hyperlinks on new lines (the text for each hyperlink is drawn from the context):

Ken Livingstone, see Livingstone, Ken

Livingstone, Ken:
      liking for newts → links to one place in the main text
      political career → links to another place in the main text

The reader will need to be directed from the cross-reference to the linked entry in the index, from where he/she can decide which of the two links to explore. SO turn the cross-reference text into a link to the main entry instead:

Ken Livingstone see Livingstone, Ken → links to Livingstone, Ken

Livingstone, Ken:
      liking for newts
      political career

NB no comma before ‘see’ (this is discussed immediately below). The link is on the same line as the headword. The word ‘see’ before the link flags to the reader that the link will jump to another place in the index rather than to the main text.

Punctuation and Capitalisation of ‘see:

This style of index functions graphically. The indentation explains the relationship between one item and the next. So the comma in Oxford style before ‘see’ is largely redundant. The use of italic is in my opinion enough differentiation. So I recommend using NO PUNCTUATION before ‘see’ IN A SET-OUT INDEX.

For example, a print index in Oxford style:

prelims, see prelimary matter

would become:

prelims see preliminary matter

In Chicago style, ‘See’ is capitalised and preceeded by a full-point. I recommend dropping the full-point for the same reason as I gave above for dropping the comma in Oxford style. This makes the capital letter wrong, so drop that as well.

So use lowercase with no punctuation before it for ‘see’ in all cases IN A SET-OUT e-book index. And do the same for ‘see also’.

Should the index entry be italicised, for example if it relates to a work title, then use Roman for ‘see’:

Hart see New Hart’s Rules

This is essentially the same as advised by Hart (§19.5.1) albeit the other way around: he says to use Roman for ‘see’ if it preceeds italic. But because a cross-reference link follows ‘see’ in an e-book index, the link style will be adequate to distinguish the two.

Perhaps I might add that this modest-sounding proposal to do away with a comma/full-point is going to be far from a trivial matter to actually do. MS Word will implacably insert a full-point before each cross-reference and they will all need manually removing from the index. Worse still, should you have insisted on Oxford style in your print index you would already have had to change the full-points to commas only to find yourself deleteing these commas for your e-book index. I do think that the punctuation is better done away with for an e-book index, however inconvenient it may be to actually do it.

More than one ‘see’ cross-reference from a main entry:

There might also be more than one possible ‘see’ cross-reference. In a manner directly analogous to the proposal in my earlier post, put a colon after ‘see’ and drop the links down onto a new line, one link per line. Indent each link by TWO further levels. And the semicolons which would have separated the cross-references are now no longer necessary, so delete these as well. Oh, and remember that the colon after ‘see’ should of course be in Roman, NOT italic.

In the following example one cross-reference refers the reader to a main entry with just one page reference and the other to a main entry with two page references (example adapted from the Chicago Manual of Style, and modified to follow Oxford):

adolescence, see teenagers; youth

teenagers  34, 36

youth  121

The entries might link like this:

adolescence see:
      teenagers → links to teenagers
      youth  → links to ‘youth

teenagers:
      acne  → links to one place in the main text
      teenage angst  → links to another place in the main text

youth → links to main text

NB once again ‘see’ is lowercase and has no punctuation before it. This time a colon follows, indicating that the links are on the next line. The links themselves are dropped onto the lines below, one per line, and are indented by TWO levels as though they were new sub-sub-entries.The word ‘see’ is on the line above and followed by a colon which indicates to the reader that the indented links below are all cross-references. BUT it is NOT possible to differentiate between a link which jumps to the index and one which jumps to the main text. Or at least there is no elegant way to do this. And so the least confusing way to do this is if EVERY link dropped down onto a new line jumps to the index, even if it finds only one page reference. The logic is that both links are preceeded by ‘see’ (albeit on the line above) and so they have both been flagged to the reader as jumping to the index rather than the main text. The indentation shows the reader that both the links are related to the ‘see’ immediately above in the same way that indenting sub-headings shows they are related to the heading above them.

The links have to be indented by TWO levels in this style to distinguish them from sub-headings, as discussed in my previous post. Also, it is important to maintain the same graphical presentation throughout so that the visual structure of the index maintains an internal logic.

see’ cross-reference finding a sub-entry:

A further possibility is that the cross-reference relates to a sub-entry. The example below is taken from the actual index in Hart and modified according to my style recommendations (i.e. colon instead of comma):

block quote, see quotations: displayed

quotations:
   …
   displayed quotations  83, 153

The obvious way to link it is to make the whole of the cross-reference text into a hyperlink:

block quote see quotations: displayed  → links to displayed quotations

quotations:
   …
   displayed quotations:
         layout  → link to one place in the main text
         quote marks → link to another place in the main text

Note that the links following the sub-entry: ‘displayed quotations’ are indented by TWO further levels and now look like sub-sub-sub-entries.

(In this case it would appear that the indexer has omitted the second ‘quotations’ from the cross-reference in the interests of brevity.)

Mixed see’ cross-references to main and sub-entries:

A final possibility, although rather unlikely, is that there may be more than one ‘see’ cross-reference and that some might find a main entry and others a sub-entry:

orange, see colours: orange; fruit

The cross-reference would link like this:

orange see:
      colours: orange → links to a sub-entry
      fruit → links to a main entry under ‘fruit

Further Considerations and Recommendations:

Well, so far so good, the basic structure is established and the outcome is the same whether you have chosen to follow Chicago or Oxford. There remain a few other kinds of cross-references and other factors to consider. Beginning with cross-references from sub-entries:

Cross-references from sub-entries:

New Hart’s Rules makes no mention of how to style a ‘see’ cross-reference from a sub-entry, but I found one example in his index:

brackets  81–3, 281–2
   …
   round, see parenthesis

Which would link as follows in an e-book index:

brackets:
      in punctuation
      in science and maths
   round see parenthesis

This assumes that the cross-reference for ‘parenthesis’ finds more than one page reference.

If the cross-reference for ‘parenthesis’ finds just the one page reference, turn it into a double entry like this:

brackets:
      in punctuation
      in science and maths
   round

Should there be more than one cross-reference:

brackets  81–3, 281–2
round, see parenthesis; some other cross-reference

Then do exactly as above, using a colon after ‘see’ and dropping the links which follow onto new lines and indent by TWO further levels as if new sub-sub-sub-entries:

brackets:
      in punctuation
      in science and maths
   round see:
         parenthesis
         some other cross-reference 

Because there is no way of differentiating between the two links after ‘see’, link BOTH cross-references to the relevant place in the index, EVEN IF one of them finds just the one page reference. ONLY make double entries if the item is on the same line as ‘see’. This is in the hope that the links will function in a logical way for the reader.

Chicago, on the other hand, throws a spanner in the works by insisting that cross-references from sub-entries be enclosed in parentheses and use lowercase for ‘see’:

statistical material, 16, 17, 89
coding of, for typesetter (see some other cross-reference; typesetting)
proofreading, 183

Which is all very well, but this presents an insurmountable difficulty if there is more than one cross-reference, as dropping each link down onto a fresh line would split the parenthesis (example adapted from the Chicago Manual of Style):

statistical material:
      abbreviations in
      mathematical expressions of
      probability
   coding of, for typesetter (see:
         some other cross-reference
         typesetting) ✘
   proofreading

So my recommendation is to do away with this particular convention from Chicago in all circumstances in an e-book index and go with Oxford for any cross-references from sub-entries.

Generic Cross-References:

The only cross-references which are left are ‘see also’ and generic cross-references. Well, a generic cross-reference, such as:

languages, see under individual languages

would be left as just plain unlinked italic text and the conventions are the same in Oxford and Chicago style. Although for consistency I would delete the comma.

In the unlikely event that there are two generic references I would run the two together into a single italicised phrase. (I couldn’t find a single example, so I presume this will be an extremely rare occurrence!)



see also’ Cross-References:

A ‘see also’ cross-reference directs the reader to places where additional information about related matter can be found. It comes after all the other entries following a main index entry:

contractions 138, 167
   and apostrophe 66–7
   see also abbreviations

This would convert to e-book as follows:

contractions:
      versus abbreviations
      in open text
   and apostrophe
   see also abbreviations

And being consistent about multiple cross-refrences, you would use a colon and drop the list of cross-references down onto a new line indented by TWO more levels:

contractions:
      versus abbreviations
      in open text
   and apostrophe
   see also:
         abbreviations
         some other cross-reference

Chicago says to bracket see also cross-references after sub-entries. As I have said above, this does not work if there is more than one see also cross-reference and so I recommend dispensing with this convention for a SET-OUT e-book index.

see also’ cross-references making a new list:

see also’ cross-references can be a bit more problematic than the foregoing suggests. In deciding how to indent them, I have found it useful to consider the ‘see also’ cross-reference as part of a list (or indeed as introducing a new list):

Following a heading, there will only be a ‘see also’ cross-reference IF the heading has at least one page reference after it. So the ‘see also’ cross-reference is in this context will always be part of a list of items following the heading. So we might have:

copy-editing  12, 25, 26–7, 31–4; see also markup

putting in the links will generate:

copy editing:
in stages of book preparation
coding of headings
responsibilities
editorial style
see also markup
 
The ‘see also’ cross-reference is part of a list of items following the heading and so is indented to the same level as the links which preceed it.

If there is just ONE page reference following the heading:

copy preparation  25–41; see also markup

The ‘see also’ is STILL part of a list. The page reference will be turned into a direct link to the main text, and so the index will look like this:

copy preparation 
see also markup

Should there be MORE THAN ONE ‘see also’ cross-reference, these cross-references themselves constitute a NEW list. In an indented index they will all need to be preceeded by ‘see also:’ and dropped down onto new lines and indented by two further levels, generating an index like this:

end matter:
acknowledgements
acknowledgements for illustrations
in book
work published in fascicles
itemised discussion
see also:
appendices
bibliography
endnotes
glossary
indexes and indexing

Note that in all cases above the ‘see also:’ is indented to the same level.

That is all very well, but should the page references and ‘see also’ cross references follow a sub-entry, you would need to structure your index like this:

Latin
abbreviations:
in citations
e.g., i.e., etc. & et. al.
see also individual abbreviations
alphabet:
versus Cyrillic in Slavonic languages
usage
see also:
ligatures
Roman numerals
in citations

The cross-references to ‘ligatures’ and ‘Roman numerals’ are indented as sub-sub-sub-sub-sub-entries (i.e. by FIVE levels more than a main heading)! The final level will therefore be level SIX. (The item itself began as a sub-entry, the ‘page reference’ links are indented TWO more levels as sub-sub+sub-entries and then the list of cross-reference links is indented TWO MORE levels as sub-sub+sub-sub+sub-entries.) Provided you use my method of markup and find and replace to format your index, this ought not to create too many problems, just mark each paragraph up as /x/, /xx/ … /xxxxxx/ and let find and replace sort it out. IF however, you type all of this manually, you may want to use a friendlier set of style names to avoid typos!

Having SIX levels of indent in your index will not be a huge problem in an e-book index, since you will NOT have columns, but it IS pushing it! Certainly I would NOT want to introduce any FURTHER levels by having sub-sub-entries in the original print index!

One possibility I have not covered is the very unlikely circumstance in which a heading was followed by two or more ‘see’ cross-references and then by two or more ‘see also’ cross-references. Because there would be NO page references in such an index entry, the maximum level of indentation would still be SIX.

Suitable styles for your index woud therefore be:

.indexEntry {text-align: left; margin-left: 3em; text-indent: -3em;}
.indexSubEntry {text-align: left; margin-left: 4em; text-indent: -3em;}
.indexSubSubEntry {text-align: left; margin-left: 5em; text-indent: -3em;}
.indexSubSubSubEntry {text-align: left; margin-left: 6em; text-indent: -3em;}
.indexSubSubSubSubEntry {text-align: left; margin-left: 7em; text-indent: -3em;}
.indexSubSubSubSubSubEntry {text-align: left; margin-left: 8em; text-indent: -3em;}


You may find names like index1, index2 … index6 would be more congenial.

General Principles:

So, putting all of the foregoing together in one place, this would be my recommendation for converting print index cross-references to e-book in a FULLY SET-OUT style:
  • Cross-reference links preceeded by ‘see’ or ‘see also’ should ALWAYS be to another entry in the index
  • see’ and ‘see also’ should ALWAYS be lowercase
  • there should NEVER be any punctuation before ‘see’ or ‘see also
  • The text of the cross reference should be linked in its entirety
  • When linking to a sub-entry:
    • ALWAYS separate the two parts of a compound cross-reference to a sub-entry using a colon
    • NEVER use the Chicago-style formula ‘see under’ to refer to a sub-entry, turn it instead into a compound cross-reference separating the two parts with a colon
    • Ignore any linking phrase at the start of the sub-entry part of a compound cross-reference when alphabetising it
    • RESIST the temptation to reorder the cross-reference so it ‘reads’ more naturally, present it in the order: ‘heading: sub-entry’
  • If a main heading is followed by MORE THAN ONE cross-reference:
    • insert a colon at the end of ‘see’ or ‘see also’ following the heading
    • remember that the colon should be set in Roman, not in italic
    • drop the cross-references down onto a new line, one cross-reference per line
    • delete any punctuation such as semicolons separating the cross-references
    • indent the cross-references by TWO extra levels, as though they were new sub-sub-entries
    • turn the cross-references into hyperlinks to the relevant place in the index
    • link to the index whether or not the linked entry has one or more than one page reference after it
  • If a sub-entry is followed by more than one cross reference:
    • proceed as above BUT
    • indent the cross-references as though they were new sub-sub-sub-entries
    • DO NOT follow Chicago by setting the cross-reference in a parenthesis
  • If a heading OR sub-entry is followed by a single cross-reference AND that cross-reference finds MORE THAN ONE page reference:
    • retain the ‘see’ or ‘see also’ and the cross-reference on the same line
    • link the cross-reference to the relevant place in the index
  • If a heading or sub-entry is followed by a single ‘see’ cross-reference AND that cross-reference finds JUST THE ONE page reference:
    • delete everything beginning with ‘see’ and continuing to the end of the cross-reference
    • turn the heading or sub-entry into a link directly to the same place in the main text as the cross-referenced entry i.e. a double entry
    • this is the ONLY situation in which you should do this
    • do NOT use double-entries for ‘see also’ cross-references
  • see also’ cross-references:
    • will always follow at least one page reference
    • should be treated as part of a list and indented to the same level as the page reference links which preceed them
    • multiple ‘see also’ cross-references constitute a list in their own right and should be indented by TWO further levels
  • ONE link per line
  • apart from punctuation which belongs to the text of the heading or sub-heading and any added colons, there will be NO PUNCTUATION in the index
  • an added colon in this style represents a relationship between one item and the next
An extended example:

Here is the print index I presented as an extended example in my previous post, set out as it would originally have appeared in Oxford and Chicago style, along with all the original cross-references and a few extra items thrown in for good measure. It is based on the actual index in New Hart’s Rules, but I have added a small number of ficticious cross-references to provide a full set of examples. These are shown in blue:

abbreviations  167–78
apostrophe in  66-7, 170, 175
books of the Bible  140–2
capitalisation  126, 127, 170–2, 192
accents  123, 361, 362; see also under individual languages
afterword  16
aliases  102, 103
articles:
electronic  350–1
titles  86, 125
 
brackets  81–3, 281–2
angle  82–3, 260, 278, 281, 351, 352
braces (curly)  82
double  281
nested  83
and punctuation  83
round, see parentheses
in scientific texts  82–3, 260, 274, 275, 278, 281–2
see also square brackets
 
copy preparation  25–41; see also markup
copy-editing  12, 25, 26–7, 31–4; see also markup
 
dots:
leader  8
medial  274, 275; see also fractions and decimals
superscript and subscript  198; see also Arabic
see also ellipses
 
edh, see eth
end matter  1, 8, 9, 10, 11, 13, 16–18; see also appendices; bibliography; endnotes; glossary; indexes and indexing
eth (ð)  229
exclamation point, see exclamation mark
extracts, see quotations: displayed
 
Latin  227–8
abbreviations  175–7, 320–2; see also individual abbreviations
alphabet  227, 237; see also ligatures; Roman numerals
in citations  320–2
legal terms  246
see also botanical names; law and legal references
 
references  129, 312–27
abbreviations  168, 319, 345
numbering system  327; see also author-date (Harvard) system; author-number (Vancouver) system
page numbers  345
unpublished works  129, 132–3, 318, 340
see also notes
running title, see running head(line)
 
wen, see wyn(n)
word division  57–62; see also line breaks and under individual languages
wyn(n) (ƿ)  229
abbreviations, 167–78
apostrophe in, 66-7, 170, 175
books of the Bible, 140–2
capitalisation, 126, 127, 170–2, 192
accents, 123, 361, 362. See also under individual languages
afterword, 16
aliases, 102, 103
articles:
electronic, 350–1
titles, 86, 125
 
brackets, 81–3, 281–2
angle, 82–3, 260, 278, 281, 351, 352
braces (curly), 82
double, 281
nested, 83
and punctuation, 83
round (see parentheses)
in scientific texts, 82–3, 260, 274, 275, 278, 281–2
See also square brackets
 
copy preparation, 25–41. See also markup
copy-editing, 12, 25, 26–7, 31–4. See also markup
 
dots:
leader, 8
medial, 274, 275 (see also fractions and decimals)
superscript and subscript, 198 (see also Arabic)
See also ellipses
 
edh. See eth
end matter, 1, 8, 9, 10, 11, 13, 16–18. See also appendices; bibiography; endnotes; glossary; indexes and indexing
eth (ð), 229
exclamation point. See exclamation mark
extracts. See quotations: displayed
 
Latin, 227–8
abbreviations, 175–7, 320–2. See also individual abbreviations
alphabet, 227, 237 (see also ligatures; Roman numerals)
in citations, 320–2
legal terms, 246
See also botanical names; law and legal references
 
references, 129, 312–27
abbreviations, 168, 319, 345
numbering system, 327 (see also author-date (Harvard) system; author-number (Vancouver) system)
page numbers, 345
unpublished works, 129, 132–3, 318, 340
See also notes
running title. See running head(line)
 
wen. See wyn(n)
word division  57–62. See also line breaks and under individual languages
wyn(n) (ƿ)  229

When converted into a FULLY SET-OUT E-BOOK index, the example becomes:

abbreviations
apostrophe in:
contractions
elision
posessives
books of the Bible
capitalisation:
acronyms
full points with
small capitals in
type treatment
accents:
alphabetisation
assimilated into English
see also under individual languages
afterword
aliases:
born versus né(e)
nicknames versus pseudonyms
articles:
electronic
titles:
paraphrased
quote marks for
 
brackets:
general principles
in science and maths
angle:
in electronic addresses
for electronic sources in citations
versus greater/less than sign
in maths
for tags
usage
braces (curly)
double
nested
and punctuation
round see parentheses
in scientific texts:
in chemical formulae
for complex ions
clarity in marking copy
dirac bra and ket
general principles
see also square brackets
 
copy preparation
see also markup
copy-editing:
in stages of book preparation
coding of headings
responsibilities
editorial style
see also markup
 
dots:
leader
medial:
for co-ordinated species
for single bonds
see also fractions and decimals
superscript and subscript
see also Arabic
see also ellipses
 
edh
end matter:
acknowledgements
acknowledgements for illustrations
in book
work published in fascicles
itemised discussion
see also:
appendices
bibliography
endnotes
glossary
indexes and indexing
eth (ð)
exclamation point see exclamation mark
extracts see quotations: displayed
 
Latin
abbreviations:
in citations
e.g., i.e., etc. & et. al.
see also individual abbreviations
alphabet:
versus Cyrillic in Slavonic languages
usage
see also:
ligatures
Roman numerals
in citations
legal terms
see also:
botanical names
law and legal references
 
references:
chapter on
introduction
abbreviations:
in citations
for locations in citations
for series
numbering system
see also:
author-date (Harvard) system
author-number (Vancouver) system
page numbers
unpublished works:
dating
published versus
typesetting of
see also notes
running title see running head(line)
 
wen
word division
see also line breaks
and under individual languages
wyn(n) (ƿ)

I do think this style is simple, clean and elegant. The links are easier to distinguish from one another than they would be were the index run-on. Also, as each link is on a line to itself, it will be significantly easier for a reader to navigate to a particular link using the arrow keys on a kindle. (And the market lead enjoyed by Amazon means considerations for kindle are very important.) On the down-side, the open structure does mean that a long index entry with lots of links and sub-entries could spread over two or even more screens. Because the page boundaries in an e-book are fluid, there is no way I can see of duplicating the repeat headings found in a print index following a column break, which is an inconvenience and will be more so in a set-out compared with a run-on index.

A RUN-ON index:

So that completes discussion/presentation of my recommended FULLY SET-OUT E-BOOK INDEX style. I will now go over how you would present your index in a RUN-ON style. This will necessarily be different according to whether you are following Oxford or Chicago style.

So the principle here is that your run-on index should as far as possible look like an Oxford or a Chicago index.

For the most part you would just turn the cross-references in their entirety into links to the index. An exception is, of course, single cross-references to entries with one page reference after them, which would still be turned into double entries and would be presented as normal index links.

Keep the uppercase ‘See’ and ‘See also’ in Chicago style, and keep the comma before these in Oxford Style or the full-point before in Chicago. Keep the semicolons separating multiple cross-references. And keep the brackets and lowercase for cross-references following sub-entries in Chicago.

I DO however think I would still use a COLON in BOTH styles to separate the two parts of a compound cross-reference to a sub-entry and I would still recommend against using the Chicago formula of ‘See under’ when referencing sub-entries, for the reason I gave above that it will make it easier for the reader to identify the cross-reference entry when they jump to it.

I would still ensure cross-references to sub-entries are consistently presented as ‘heading: sub-entry’ and in that order. I would still ignore any linking phrase at the start of the sub-entry part of the compound cross-reference when alphabetising it and I would still run the link from the beginning to the end of the cross-reference in its entirety.

In other words, follow your stlye guide, but adhere to the ‘Common Principles’ I outlined at the start.

Adapting a Print Index to a RUN-ON E-BOOK index:
  • Cross-reference links preceeded by ‘see’ or ‘see also’ should ALWAYS be to another entry in the index
  • Turn SINGLE ‘see cross-references which find a SINGLE page reference into double entries
  • The text of the cross reference should be linked in its entirety
  • When linking to a sub-entry:
    • ALWAYS separate the two parts of a compound cross-reference to a sub-entry using a colon
    • NEVER use the Chicago-style formula ‘see under’ to refer to a sub-entry, turn it instead into a compound cross-reference separating the two parts with a colon
    • Ignore any linking phrase at the start of the sub-entry part of a compound cross-reference when alphabetising it
    • RESIST the temptation to reorder the cross-reference so it ‘reads’ more naturally, present it in the order: ‘heading: sub-entry’
  • Other than that, work the cross-reference links into the style of the surrounding index.
Extended example:

The extended example above presented as a RUN-ON E-BOOK INDEX in Oxford and Chicago style:

abbreviations
apostrophe in  contractions, elision, posessives
books of the Bible
capitalisation  acronyms, full points with, small capitals in, type treatment
accents  alphabetisation, assimilated into English; see also under individual languages
afterword
aliases  born versus né(e), nicknames versus pseudonyms
articles:
electronic
titles  paraphrased, quote marks for
 
brackets  general principles, in science and maths
angle  in electronic addresses, for electronic sources in citations, versus greater/less than sign, in maths, for tags, usage
braces (curly)
double
nested
and punctuation
round, see parenthesis
in scientific texts  in chemical formulae, for complex ions, clarity in marking copy, dirac bra and ket, general principles
see also square brackets
 
copy preparation; see also markup
copy-editing  in stages of book preparation, coding of headings, responsibilities, editorial style; see also markup
 
dots:
leader
medial  for co-ordinated species, for single bonds; see also fractions and decimals
superscript and subscript; see also Arabic
see also ellipses
 
edh
end matter  acknowledgements, acknowledgements for illustrations, in book, work published in fascicles, itemised discussion; see also appendices; bibliography; endnotes; glossary; indexes and indexing
eth (ð)
exclamation point, see exclamation mark
extracts, see quotations: displayed
 
Latin
abbreviations  in citations, e.g., i.e., etc. & et. al.; see also individual abbreviations
alphabet  versus Cyrillic in Slavonic languages, usage; see also ligatures; Roman numerals
in citations
legal terms
see also botanical names; law and legal references
 
references  chapter on, introduction
abbreviations  in citations, for locations in citations, for series
numbering system; see also author-date (Harvard) system; author-number (Vancouver) system
page numbers
unpublished works  dating, published versus, typesetting of
see also notes
running title, see running head(line)
 
wen
word division; see also line breaks and under individual languages
wyn(n) (ƿ)
abbreviations
apostrophe in, contractions, elision, posessives
books of the Bible
capitalisation, acronyms, full points with, small capitals in, type treatment
accents, alphabetisation, assimilated into English. See also under individual languages
afterword
aliases, born versus né(e), nicknames versus pseudonyms
articles:
electronic
titles, paraphrased, quote marks for
 
brackets, general principles, in science and maths
angle, in electronic addresses, for electronic sources in citations, versus greater/less than sign, in maths, for tags, usage
braces (curly)
double
nested
and punctuation
round (see parenthesis)
in scientific texts, in chemical formulae, for complex ions, clarity in marking copy, dirac bra and ket, general principles
See also square brackets
 
copy preparation. See also markup
copy-editing, in stages of book preparation, coding of headings, responsibilities, editorial style. See also markup
 
dots:
leader
medial, for co-ordinated species, for single bonds (see also fractions and decimals)
superscript and subscript (see also Arabic)
See also ellipses
 
edh
end matter, acknowledgements, acknowledgements for illustrations, in book, work published in fascicles, itemised discussion. See also appendices; bibliography; endnotes; glossary; indexes and indexing
eth (ð) 
exclamation point. See exclamation mark
extracts. See quotations: displayed
 
Latin
abbreviations, in citations, e.g., i.e., etc. & et. al. (see also individual abbreviations)
alphabet, versus Cyrillic in Slavonic languages, usage (see also ligatures; Roman numerals)
in citations
legal terms
See also botanical names; law and legal references
 
references, chapter on, introduction
abbreviations, in citations, for locations in citations, for series
numbering system (see also author-date (Harvard) system; author-number (Vancouver) system)
page numbers
unpublished works, dating, published versus, typesetting of
See also notes
running title. See running head(line)
 
wen
word division. See also line breaks and under individual languages
wyn(n) (ƿ)

How to make the links in your index:

Firstly note that, as the cross-references are all within the index, the links can be made at any time: no markup is added to the main text and so the page boundaries are unaffected.

It is fairly straightforward to make the cross-references. You might want to refer to my previous post on how to adapt the print index for e-book when reading what follows.

The first thing to do is to restructure the cross-references along the lines indicated immediately above.

Now you need to create the necessary markup. At the risk of some repetition, I’ll return to the examples already given:

Making a link by Substituting a Double-Entry:

Coming back to a cross-reference to an entry with a single page reference:

Rod Shelton, see Shelton, Rod

Shelton, Rod 123

As I said above, this is best dealt with in an e-book by creating a double entry. Turn BOTH entries into hyperlinks to the SAME place in the main text:

Rod Shelton

Shelton, Rod

Do this by duplicating the first part of the markup from the main entry and adding it to the cross-reference and, obviously, delete the end bit:

{Ch1#67_Rod Shelton} see Shelton, Rod

{Ch1#67_Shelton, Rod}

You would then make the replacements I detailed here in my previous post.

If the Cross-Reference finds more than one page reference/hyperlink:

IF the cross-reference refers to an entry with two or more page references, you will need to direct the user to the main entry in the index, from where they can then choose from the available page references (print book) or links (e-book):

Ken Livingstone, see Livingstone, Ken

Livingstone, Ken 45, 67

In this case, re-working the index will result in:

Ken Livingstone see Livingstone, Ken

Livingstone, Ken:
      liking for newts
      political career

The marked-up index would look like this:

/x/Ken Livingstone /i/see/ii/ Livingstone, Ken

/x/Livingstone, Ken:
      /xxx/liking for {Ch5#130_newts}
      /xxx/{Ch5#109_political career}

You will need to add additional markup to create the hyperlink for the cross-reference:

/x/Ken Livingstone /i/see/ii/ /xr/3/xxr/Livingstone, Ken/xxxr/

/x//xrl/3/xxrl/Livingstone, Ken:/xxxrl/
      /xxx/liking for {Ch5#130_newts}
      /xxx/{Ch5#109_political career}

And then use find and replace to:

replace /xrl/ with <span id="xri
then replace /xxrl/ with ">
and replace /xxxrl/ with </span>

and also replace /xr/ with <a href="#xri
replace /xxr/ with ">
and finally replace /xxxr/ with </a>

(NB ‘xri’ has been added to make the label unique. Any character(s) will do. ‘xri’ is supposed to stand for ‘cross reference (index)’.)

After the other replacements have been made, this creates:

<p class="indexEntry">Ken Livingstone, <span class="italicText">see</span>: <a href="#xri3">Livingstone, Ken</a></p>

<p class="indexentry"><span id="xri3">Livingstone, Ken:</span></p>
<p class="indexSubSubEntry">liking for <a href="Chapter5.xhtml#130">newts</a></p>

<p class="indexSubSubEntry"><a href="Chapter5.xhtml#109">political career</a></p>


The number: 3 hilited in blue is a unique number for the cross-reference which you will have to add. It must match in the link and the label. As both the label and the link are in the same file, there is no need to include the filename in the href for the link.

The only other possibility is that the cross-reference could point to a subheading. Again, if the subheading has only one page reference, treat is as a double entry. If the subheading contains multiple page references, follow the procedure above.

see also’ cross-references:

see also’ cross-references direct the reader to closely related items in the index. It would seem to me that these would work like the cross-references I have just described above, which direct the reader to a choice of links. Just substitute the text: ‘see also’ instead of: ‘see’.

Adjustments to layout in a PRINT INDEX:

In creating the extended example, I came across a few puzzling items in the index in New Hart’s Rules, mostly ‘see also’ cross-references after a main heading, which were sometimes presented as sub-entries, rather than being appended to the list of page references and set off by a semi-colon. I wasn’t going to mention this, as I thought these might have been simple typos. And indeed typos are not uncommon in indexes, as the index is always the last thing to be done and inevitably under harsh time constraints. However it occurs to me that there may be a different reason. I certainly can’t find any functional explanation but it may be that adjustments have been made to the layout for typographical reasons. Chicago (§16.138 16th Edn) does discuss something of the kind, recommending adjustments to deal with ‘bad breaks’. In an e-book, as the page boundaries will vary according to the point-size selected by the user, you should NOT make any such adjustments and, indeed, should undo any such adjustments in your print index before getting started on the conversion to e-book.

Follow-on lines:

Chicago advises an extra hanging indent for any follow-on lines (where the index entry runs to two or more lines). In §16.137, they advise that ‘runover’ lines should ALL be indented by 3em. This was in the context of an index with only two levels of indent. However in the FULLY SET-OUT style I am suggesting, there could be as many as SIX levels of indent. So, logically, this would mean indenting ALL runover lines by SEVEN EM, which it seems to me would NOT be acceptable. And so, in a fully set-out e-book index, I suggest a hanging indent of 3em for all entries. (So a runover line following a main heading would be indented by 3em, a runover line following a sub-heading by 4em … ending with a runover line from a sub-sub-sub-sub-sub-entry indented by 8em!) The list of styles I have given above in this post follows this recommendation.

A Footnote about readability:

The ability of the e-book to hyperlink all over the place is a great advance on print books. However following a link might not always be easy for the reader. The screen will jump to either the linked place in the main text or else to another index entry. In BOTH cases there will be no visual cue to show the reader where to look on the screen for the bit they wanted to refer to. In the process of researching this blog I have found a very elegant solution using CSS3 to hilite the target of any link [using the :target selector, information about which is here]. This would work much as the footnote links in Wikipedia do, and would be a significant advance for e-book indexes. BUT this won’t yet work on the majority of e-book readers, just on epub3.0 e-readers. Until these are more widely available and until all the existing epub2.0 e-readers have been junked I am not sure it is worth it making epub3.0 e-books. And quite how you would achieve this on a kindle is anyone’s guess. If there is anyone out there in the interspace who happens to know of a solution which works on epub2.0 or/and kindle, then please do get in touch!!!!

And finally:

I have spent a good deal of time working through how to style and link an index in an epub2.0 e-book and have come to some fairly radical conclusions, departing some way from current print industry practice. I have tried to follow the logic of the recommendations in New Hart’s Rules and The Chicago Manual of Style, whilst at the same time accommodating the necessary changes required by the very different e-book format and also taking full advantage of the ability of e-books to include hyperlinks. I am not arrogant enough to think I’ve got everything right or covered all the angles. I do hope that coming from a print background I have thought this through properly and given it more thought than simply recommending adding hyperlinks with no regard for how the index would read or be useful to the reader. If anyone, from a print or e-book background wants to discuss this with me I would be delighted to receive comments on these posts and/or messages via the ‘contact’ form in the sidebar.


Next Steps:

The final stage in making your e-pub e-book is to enter the metadata. To do this will need a knowledge of the structure of content.opf and I will return to that in my next few posts, including how to edit the metadata using Sigil.

Index to ‘how to …’ posts:

How to ‘unpack’ an epub file to edit the contents and see what’s inside.
How to understand what is inside an epub
How to link the html table of Contents in a Kindle e-book
How to restructure the html table of contents for a Kindle
How to delete the html cover for a Kindle ebook
How to link the cover IMAGE in a Kindle e-book
How to clean up your MS Word file before your get started
How to markup an MS Word file to identify the formats before importing it into an epub
How to create a new blank e-pub using Sigil
How to import your marked-up MS Word file into your ebook using Sigil
How to create and link a CSS stylesheet in an e-book using Sigil
How to replace the markup with CSS styles in your ebook using Sigil
How to style an e-book so it works with the limited CSS styling available to Kindle e-readers
How to understand the syntax of CSS
How to style Small Caps in an e-book
How to split your ebook up into chapters using Sigil
How to sequence your e-book
How to phrase the copyright declarations etc. in an e-book
How to generate the logical table of contents using Sigil
How to understand toc.ncx in an e-book
How to generate the html table of contents in an e-pub
How to style the html table of contents using CSS
How to create an html cover for your epub using Sigil
How to present references and notes in a book
How to use Mark Up to link notes in your e-book
How to present a bibliography in a book
How to use markup to link entries in a bibliography with the notes section
How to index an e-book
How to use the tools in MS Word to create an index
How to alphabetise an index or bibliography
How to adapt the print index in your MS Word file for an e-book using markup
How to adapt cross-references in your print index for e-book and how to use markup to make the links
How to understand content.opf
How to understand and edit the Metadata of an ebook using Sigil
How to understand the manifest in content.opf
How to understand the spine and guide in content.opf
How to test your e-pub using flightCrew in Sigil
How to test your e-pub using epubcheck
How to convert an e-pub to Kindle using kindlegen

TinyURL for this post: http://tinyurl.com/o3ad86q
 
Twitter Bird Gadget